By Vladimir Gel'man
Vladimir Gel’man examines regime switch in Russia from the cave in of the Soviet Union in 1991 to the current day, systematically offering theoretical and comparative views of the criteria that affected regime adjustments and the authoritarian float of the rustic. After the autumn of the Soviet Union, Russia’s nationwide political elites aimed to accomplish their objectives through growing and implementing of favorable “rules of the sport” for themselves and preserving casual profitable coalitions of cliques round person rulers. within the Nineties, those strikes have been purely in part winning given the weak spot of the Russian kingdom and stricken post-socialist financial system. within the 2000s, even though, Vladimir Putin rescued the method due to the mix of financial progress and the revival of the nation means he used to be capable of enforce via enforcing a chain of non-democratic reforms. within the 2010s, altering stipulations within the nation have offered new dangers and demanding situations for the Putin regime that would play themselves out within the years to come.
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Additional resources for Authoritarian Russia: Analyzing Post-Soviet Regime Changes
But under certain circumstances the elite realizes that its chances to win in a zero-sum game are low, and, given risk-aversive incentives, comes to compromise on new rules of the game that open up opportunities for open competition by electoral means—that is, democracy. Of course, these compromises do not always work well—all parties in the conflicts face major temptations to transgress against the new rules and to deceive their partners, and this is why the mechanisms of “pacts” or “elite settlements” often prove to be unstable and short-lived.
65 russia’s flight from freedom 29 Perhaps the best-known paradigmatic case of successful elite settlements was the 1688–89 Glorious Revolution in England, which was analyzed in detail by Douglass North and Barry Weingast. They considered the monarchy before the mid-seventeenth century as a predatory rule of the crown, which robbed landowners and urban merchants via excessive taxation, but also used these actors as junior partners in ad hoc winning coalitions. But against the background of the fiscal crisis, the English state attempted to rob both key segments of the elite, causing the emergence of a “negative consensus” coalition between these two groups, the Tories and the Whigs.
69 The “success stories” of East European democratization, to a certain degree, have been determined by international (mainly West European) influence. The combination of the attractiveness of becoming part of a “Greater Europe” for the East European elite and wider society, the rapid and intensive increase of scope of linkages between Western and Eastern Europe, and the impact of European Union conditions for entering the club have pushed East Europeans toward democratization and the building of the rule of law.