By Eric Freedman, Richard Shafer
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Extra info for After the Czars and Commissars: Journalism in Authoritarian Post-Soviet Central Asia
Controlled the Agrarian and Civic Parties until their merger with the presidential Otan Party in 2007. According to Forbes, all three men were worth a little under $2 billion each in 2007. Ekspress-K newspaper, Irbis television station (which won rights to radio stations in eight cities as a result of the 2007 media tender) INNER CIRCLE Utemuratov, Bulat§ Shareholder in Turan Alem Bank and Narodnyi Bank, former shareholder in ATF Bank, Kazzink (zinc mining), Kazfosfat (phosphates). Forbes estimated Utemuratov’s net worth at $1 billion in 2008.
Said to have worked closely with the Ak Zhol Party, headed by political elite Alikhan Baimenov. 5 billion. None *Until 2001, Aliev was considered the president’s right hand and a potential successor. Aliev’s inﬂuence declined a er 2001, the result of a confrontation with the Ablyazov FPG and evidence that Aliev was plotting against the president and had posted compromising material about the president and his family on the Internet. †Utemuratov is sometimes listed as a member of the inner circle.
Central Asian journalists beneﬁted from those policies as well, but in the waning years of Soviet control, political leaders in Central Asia “were especially angry with the new journalism, which they perceived as a threat to their power,” according to Brown, referring in particular to media exposure of corruption. Not surprisingly, the increased openness and move toward greater press freedoms under prime minister Mikhail Gorbechev’s policies of perestroika and glasnost did not last in the region: four years a er independence, Brown noted that the inﬂuence of glasnost in Central Asia had largely disappeared.