Download A Political And Diplomatic History of Afghanistan, 1863-1901 by M. Hassan Kakar PDF

By M. Hassan Kakar

This political and diplomatic background of past due nineteenth-century Afghanistan and its significant ethnic teams lays naked how the floor used to be laid for the emergence of Afghanistan as a countryside in addition to for the implementation of schemes of modernization.

It describes how Amir Sher ‘Ali Khan and, extra absolutely, Amir ‘Abd al-Rahman Khan for the 1st time consolidated the authority of the critical executive on the cost of the normal self sustaining neighborhood magnates, and therefore controlled to arrange a centralized monarchical kingdom and expand its direct rule thoughout Afghanistan.

They did so within the days of what has turn into referred to as the nice online game for the mastery of imperative Asian states. even if the good video game ended in the relief of Afghanistan in dimension, it additionally ended in the transparent demarcation of its obstacles in response to overseas agreements.

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More than a million pound of powder and, I believe, several million rounds of homemade snider ammunition, were in the Bala Hissar. ”21 The amir had turned Kabul into a military city where “. . ”22 Amir Sher 'Ali also attempted to popularize the army by inducing royal princes to serve it. He “. . ”23 The amir “. . , 135. Figures on the army of Amir Sher 'Ali Khan are many and at variance with each other. Those noted by J. Lambert are probably accurate, because he had compiled them from the official pay rolls in Kabul when the British had occupied it in 1879.

The standing army enabled him to do so as it freed him from traditional dependence on the Mohammadzay sardars as well as the magnates. 40 Out of “expediency” the amir did not abolish polygamy, but he would exercise his full powers, to secure her [widow] the freedom of [re] marriage and the guardianship of her brood [sic] from her deceased husband. . ”42 However, slavery was practiced on a small scale in Afghanistan. Other measures included the establishment of postal services, the building of the Sherpur (also Sher Abad) cantonment, and the setting up of a lithographic printing press in which Shams al-Nahar, the first official periodical in Afghanistan, was published.

According to Effendi the amir “. . , Sayyid Jamal ad-Din “al-Afghani”, A Political Biography, University of California Press, Berkeley, London, 1972, 37, 58. Roy Mottahedeh has characterized the great instigator of the Muslim world in the following words: “He had a madrasah education both in Iran and Iraq. He also acquired training in ‘erfan from an Iranian teacher and himself wrote a treatise on Islamic mysticism. From then on he shifted from country to country and role to role in an attempt to revive Islam as a political force.

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